Achieving the required reductions requires an integrated systems approach. In addition to changes in human user behaviour, a combination of logistical, traffic and vehicle measures is needed. From a cross-sector well-to-wheel perspective, it is essential that the current transition in the energy sector support future vehicle technologies by enabling availability of renewable energy carriers. It is generally agreed that there is no single transition path to sustainable mobility.
Meeting future decarbonization goals at the lowest possible cost (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) will require all energy carriers that can contribute.
Three energy carriers are considered to be the most promising:
• Renewable electricity,
• Renewable hydrogen and
• E-fuels (or power-to-X)
For two-wheelers and Light Electric Vehicles (LEV), the battery is clearly the chosen energy carrier. For passenger cars, there is also a clear shift toward electrification, currently with batteries (BEV) but fuel cell (FCEV) will also play a role. A similar shift will also take place for urban distribution, smaller trucks and buses.
To meet the requirements for zero-emission zones in urban areas, hybrid solutions will play an important role in the run-up.
At this moment, there is developping a need of battery technology for distances of 300 to 800 km. For heavy and long haul transport (Heavy Duty Trucks and inland vessels), internal combustion engines (ICE) based on hydrogen (H2ICE) may offer a primary power source.
Besides energy systems for mobility, one can extend the possibilities to energy storage as well. E.g. the re-use of batteries for electric storage, hydrogen storage using molecular technic.
An important enabling factor will possibly be a categorial division in users per energy type, based on the availability and capacity of several energy types. Besides that, public and private refill/charching stations will play an important role.
RAI Automotive Industry NL supports its members through technology workshops, sharing information, connecting parties and initiating (inter)national cooperation between industry, knowledge institutions and government through programs and development projects to support the innovative and economic position of the Dutch industry in the market.